Water Quality Assessment Authority

Government of India

Grond Water Quality in Shallow Aquifer

Ground Water is commonly tapped from phreatic aquifers (Shallow aquifers) through dugwells in a major part of the country and through springs and hand pumps in hilly areas. The main objective of ground water quality monitoring programme is to get information on the distribution of water quality on a regional scale as well as create a background data bank of different chemical constituents in ground water. The chemical quality of shallow ground water is being monitored by Central Ground Water Board once in a year (April/May) through a network of 15640 observation wells located all over the country. The chemical parameters like TDS, Chloride, Fluoride, Iron, Arsenic and Nitrate etc are main constituents defining the quality of ground water in unconfined aquifers. Therefore, presence of these parameters in ground water beyond the permissible limit in the absence of alternate source has been considered as ground water quality hotspots. The distribution of the following constituents in more than permissible limits in ground water tapping unconfined shallow aquifers is discussed in detail.
I. Electrical Conductivity
II. Chloride
III. Fluoride (>1.5 mg/litre
IV. Iron (>1.0 mg/litre)
V. Arsenic (>0.05 mg/litre)
VI. Nitrate (>45 mg/litre)
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